The Impact of Challenge Stressors and Hindrance Stressors on Recovery Experiences and Job Performance

نوع المستند : بحوث باللغة العربیة


Business Administration Department, Faculty of Commerce - Alexandria University, Arab Republic of Egypt


This study investigated the impact of challenge stressors and hindrance stressors on recovery experiences and job performance, as well as tested the mediating role of recovery experiences in those relationships. Data were collected from 251 Egyptian nurses working in Alexandria University Hospitals. The theoretical model was tested by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Specifically, the current study examined the positive relationship between challenge stressors and both recovery experiences and job performance. In addition, the current study investigated the negative relationship between hindrance stressors and both recovery experiences and job performance. Finally, the study examined the positive effect of recovery experiences on job performance Results indicated that challenge stressors were negatively related to both psychological detachment and relaxation. SEM also revealed that psychological detachment was positively related to in-role behaviors. However, the current study didn’t support the mediating role of recovery experiences in the hypothesized relationships. Also, the results didn’t support the negative relationships between hindrance stressors and recovery experiences and job performance. Thoughts for future research were provided.

الكلمات الرئيسية

Arsenault, A. and S. Dolan. (1983). “The role of personality, occupation and organization in understanding the relationship between job stress, performance and absenteeism”, Journal of Occupational Psychology, 56 (3), 227-240.
Boswell, W. R.; J. B. Olson-Buchanan and M. A. LePine. (2004). “Relations between stress and work outcomes: The role of felt challenge, job control, and psychological strain”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64 (1), 165-181.‏
Binnewies, C.; S. Sonnentag and E. J. Mojza. (2009). “Daily performance at work: Feeling recovered in the morning as a predictor of day-level job performance”,‏ Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30 (1), 67-93.
Baron, R. M. and D. A. Kenny. (1986). “The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (6), 1173-1182.
Cavanaugh, M. A.; W. R. Boswell; M. V. Roehling and J. W. Boudreau. (2000). “An empirical examination of self-reported work stress among US managers”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 85 (1), 65-74.
Demerouti, E.; A. B. Bakker; S. A. Geurts and T. W. Taris. (2009). “Daily recovery from work-related effort during non-work time”, In: Current perspectives on job-stress recovery. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. (Vol. 7), 85-123.
Devon, H. A.; M. E. Block; P. Moyle‐Wright; D. M. Ernst; S. J. Hayden; D. J. Lazzara and E. Kostas‐Polston. (2007). “A psychometric toolbox for testing validity and reliability”, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 39 (2), 155-164.
Daft, R. (2010). Organizational theory and design. London: Cengage Learning.
Eatough, E. M.; C. H. Chang; S. A. Miloslavic and R. E. Johnson. (2011). “Relationships of role stressors with organizational citizenship behavior: a meta-analysis”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 96 (3), 619-632.
Eschleman, K. J.; J. Madsen; G. Alarcon and A. Barelka. (2014). “Benefiting from creative activity: The positive relationships between creative activity, recovery experiences, and performance‐related outcomes”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87 (3), 579-598.
Fritz, C.; S. Sonnentag; P. E. Spector and J. A. McInroe. (2010). “The weekend matters: Relationships between stress recovery and affective experiences”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31 (8), 1137-1162.
Fritz, C. and S. Sonnentag. (2006). “Recovery, well-being, and performance-related outcomes: the role of workload and vacation experiences”m Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (4), 936-945.
Fritz, C. and S. Sonnentag. (2005). “Recovery, health, and job performance: effects of weekend experiences”, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10 (3), 187-199.‏
Folkman, S. and R. S. Lazarus. (1985). “If it changes it must be a process: study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48 (1), 150-170.
Gilboa, S.; A. Shirom; Y. Fried and C. Cooper. (2008). “A meta‐analysis of work demand stressors and job performance: examining main and moderating effects”, Personnel Psychology, 61 (2), 227-271.
Garson, G. D. (2013). Validity and Reliability. (Statistical Associates Blue Book Series, 12), Kindle Edition, 1-29.
Hair, J. F.; R. E. Anderson; B. J. Babin and W. C. Black. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective (Vol. 7). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.‏
Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). “Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress”, American psychologist, 44 (3), 513-524.
Halbesleben, J. R.; A. R. Wheeler and S. C. Paustian-Underdahl. (2013). “The impact of furloughs on emotional exhaustion, self-rated performance, and recovery experiences”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 98 (3), 492-503.
Hoelter, J. (1983). “The analysis of covariance structures goodness-of-fit indices”, Sociological Methods & Research, 11 (3), 325-344.
Hu, L. and P. Bentler. (1999). “Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives”, Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6 (1), 1-55.
Ilies, R.; J. Keeney and B. A. Scott. (2011). “Work–family interpersonal capitalization: Sharing positive work events at home”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 114 (2), 115-126.
Ivancevich, J. M.; M. T. Matteson and R. Konopaske. (1990). Organizational Behavior and Management.
Kinnunen, U., Feldt, T., Siltaloppi, M., & Sonnentag, S. (2011). Job demands–resources model in the context of recovery: Testing recovery experiences as mediators. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20 (6), 805-832.‏
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (I984). Coping and adaptation. In W. D. Gentry (Ed.), The handbook of behavioral medicine. New York: Guilford, 282-325.
Lazarus, R. S. (1968). Emotions and adaptation: conceptual and empirical relations, In: Arnold, W. J. (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, USA, 175-266.
LePine, J. A., Podsakoff, N. P., & LePine, M. A. (2005). A meta-analytic test of the challenge stressor–hindrance stressor framework: An explanation for inconsistent relationships among stressors and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48 (5), 764-775.
Meijman, T. F., & Mulder, G. (1998). “Psychological aspects of workload”, In: Handbook of Work and Organizational Psychology, (Vol. 2), 5-33.
Motowildo, S. J.; W. C. Borman and M. J. Schmit. (1997). “A theory of individual differences in task and contextual performance”, Human performance, 10 (2), 71-83.
Matud, M. P. (2004). “Gender differences in stress and coping styles”, Personality and Individual Differences, 37 (7), 1401-1415.
Ong, A. D.; C. S. Bergeman; T. L. Bisconti and K. A. Wallace. (2006). “Psychological resilience, positive emotions, and successful adaptation to stress in later life”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91 (4), 730-749.
Perrewé, P. L. and K. L. Zellars. (1999). “An examination of attributions and emotions in the transactional approach to the organizational stress process”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20 (5), 739-752.‏
Podsakoff, N. P.; J. A. LePine and M. A. LePine. (2007). “Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: a meta-analysis”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 92 (2), 438-454.
Podsakoff, P. M.; S. B. MacKenzie; J. Y. Lee and N. P. Podsakoff. (2003). “Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (5), 879-903.
Pearsall, M. J.; A. P. Ellis and J. H. Stein. (2009). “Coping with challenge and hindrance stressors in teams: Behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 109 (1), 18-28.
Rodriguez-Muñoz, A.; A. I. Sanz-Vergel; E. Demerouti and A. B. Bakker. (2015). “Reciprocal relationships between job demands, job resources, and recovery opportunities”, Journal of Personnel Psychology, 11 (2), 86-94.
Rodell, J. B. and T. A. Judge. (2009). “Can “good” stressors spark “bad” behaviors? The mediating role of emotions in links of challenge and hindrance stressors with citizenship and counterproductive behaviors”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 94 (6), 1438-1451.
Sonnentag, S. and C. Fritz. (2015). “Recovery from job stress: The stressor‐detachment model as an integrative framework”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36 (1), 72-103.
Sonnentag, S. and C. Fritz. (2007). “The Recovery Experience Questionnaire: development and validation of a measure for assessing recuperation and unwinding from work”, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12 (3), 204-221.‏
Sonnentag, S. and U. V. Bayer. (2005). “Switching off mentally: predictors and consequences of psychological detachment from work during off-job time”, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10 (4), 393-414.
Siltaloppi, M.; U. Kinnunen and T. Feldt. (2009). “Recovery experiences as moderators between psychosocial work characteristics and occupational well-being”, Work & Stress, 23 (4), 330-348.
Sonnentag, S. (2011). “Recovery from fatigue: The role of psychological detachment”, In: P. L. Ackerman (Ed.), Cognitive fatigue: The current status and future for research and application. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association, 253–272.
Sonnentag, S. (2001). “Work, recovery activities, and individual well-being: a diary study”, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6 (3), 196-210.
Sonnentag, S.; I. Kuttler and C. Fritz. (2010). “Job stressors, Emotional exhaustion, and Need for recovery: A multi-source study on the benefits of psychological detachment”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76 (3), 355-365.
Sonnentag, S. and F. R. Zijlstra. (2006). “Job characteristics and off-job activities as predictors of need for recovery, well-being, and fatigue”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (2), 330-350.‏
Sonnentag, S. and U. Kruel. (2006). “Psychological detachment from work during off-job time: The role of job stressors, job involvement, and recovery-related self-efficacy”, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15 (2), 197-217.
Tadić, M.; A. B. Bakker and W. G. Oerlemans. (2015). “Challenge versus hindrance job demands and well‐being: A diary study on the moderating role of job resources”, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 88 (4), 702-725.
Tavakol, M. and R. Dennick. (2011). “Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha”, International Journal of Medical Education, 2 (1), 53-55.‏
Webster, J. R.; T. A. Beehr and N. D. Christiansen. (2010). “Toward a better understanding of the effects of hindrance and challenge stressors on work behavior”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76 (1), 68-77.
Widmer, P. S.; N. K. Semmer; W. Kälin; N. Jacobshagen and L. L. Meier. (2012). “The ambivalence of challenge stressors: Time pressure associated with both negative and positive well-being”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80 (2), 422-433.
Wallace, J. C.; B. D. Edwards; T. Arnold; M. L. Frazier and D. M. Finch. (2009). “Work stressors, role-based performance, and the moderating influence of organizational support”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 94 (1), 254-262.‏
Williams, L. J. and S. E. Anderson. (1991). “Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors”, Journal of Management, 17 (3), 601-617.‏
Zijlstra, F. R. and S. Sonnentag. (2006). “After work is done: Psychological perspectives on recovery from work”, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15 (2), 129-138.‏